Skull and facial fractures are broken bones of the head and face. Injury can result in damage to the brain.

Types of skull fractures include:

  • Simple—the bone is broken, but skin is intact
  • Linear—the break is in a thin, straight line through the depth of the skull bone
  • Depressed—the bone of the skull is crushed and pushed in toward the brain
  • Comminuted—a complex fracture with bone splintering and tearing of the skin

Facial fractures can occur in any of the face’s bones. They are named for specific areas of the face:

  • Maxillary fractures involve the upper jaw. They are classified as Le Fort I-V fractures based on their specific location on the maxillary bone.
  • Mandible fractures involve the lower jaw.
  • Zygomatic fractures involve the cheekbones.

Fractures may either be:

  • Closed—the fracture does not break the skin
  • Open—the fracture breaks through the skin

Both skull and facial fractures may be life-threatening conditions. They require immediate medical treatment.

Fractures in the Zygomatic Arch and Orbit
skull fracture zygo and eye socket
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Skull and/or facial fractures are caused by direct trauma to your head. Trauma can be caused by:

  • Falls
  • Car, motorcycle, or pedestrian accident
  • Blunt force trauma
  • Penetrating trauma
  • Domestic violence, child or elder abuse
  • Sports injury
  • Gunshot