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Fetal alcohol exposure is one of the leading causes of birth defects and developmental disorders. Estimates place the number of US children affected by fetal alcohol exposure at almost one case for every 1,000 live births.

Pick up a bottle of beer, wine or hard liquor, and you'll see the following on the label:

GOVERNMENT WARNING: ACCORDING TO THE SURGEON GENERAL, WOMEN SHOULD NOT DRINK ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES DURING PREGNANCY BECAUSE OF THE RISK OF BIRTH DEFECTS.

The stark wording is an attempt to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other alcohol-related problems.

When a woman drinks alcoholic beverages, the alcohol in her blood crosses the placenta freely and enters the embryo or fetus through the umbilical cord. Children affected by prenatal exposure to alcohol may suffer lifelong consequences, including intellectual disability, learning disabilities, physical problems (like abnormal facial features or abnormal growth) and serious behavior problems.

All drinks containing alcohol can hurt an unborn baby. A standard 12-ounce can of beer has the same amount of alcohol as a four-ounce glass of wine or a one-ounce shot of straight liquor. In addition, some alcoholic drinks, such as malt beverages, wine coolers, and mixed drinks, often contain more alcohol than a 12-ounce can of beer. There is no known safe amount of alcohol that a woman can drink while pregnant.

Any time a pregnant woman participates in regular drinking, she increases her chance of having a spontaneous abortion and puts her unborn child at risk for growth deficiencies, learning disabilities, and behavioral problems. Problems associated with prenatal exposure to alcohol can occur in the first few weeks of pregnancy, before a woman may even knows that she is pregnant.

Findings from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that about 1 in 8 pregnant women reported alcohol use during pregnancy.