Warning: Blue cohosh is a toxic herb. Natural and Alternative Treatments (NAT) strongly recommends against using it.

Blue cohosh is a flowering herb native to North America, growing in forested areas from the southeastern United States to Canada. Sometimes known as squaw root or papoose root, the herb may have been used medicinally by native Americans, although this belief is controversial. Other common names for the herb include yellow ginseng and blue ginseng. Blue cohosh should not be confused with the similarly named (but unrelated and much safer) black cohosh. Blue cohosh was used in the 1800s by European settlers and African Americans, primarily for gynecologic conditions.1Blue cohosh also has a reputation as an herb that can induce abortions, although concerns regarding its efficacy and safety make this use extremely ill-advised.2 In addition, it has been used for the treatment of arthritis, cramps, epilepsy, inflammation of the uterus, hiccups, colic, and sore throat.

Blue cohosh is widely prescribed by herbalists and midwives. A 1999 survey published in the Journal of Nurse-Midwiferyfound that 64% of certified nurse-midwives who prescribe herbal medicines use blue cohosh to induce labor.3 It has also been used for a wide variety of menstrual problems, including several for which it would not be logical to believe that the same treatment could help. For example, blue cohosh has been used to start menstrual periods that were late in coming and yet also to stop excessive or ongoing menstrual flow.

There is no credible evidence that blue cohosh is effective for any of the conditions for which it has been used. Furthermore, several published reports cite cases of serious side effects to infants apparently caused by blue cohosh. (See Safety Issues.)