Risk Factors for Sleep Apnea
A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.
It is possible to develop sleep apnea with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing sleep apnea. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.
Risk factors for sleep apnea include:
People who smoke more than two packs per day are more likely to develop sleep apnea than non-smokers.
Some studies have shown that people who use alcohol regularly have an increased risk of sleep apnea.
Using sedative medications can increase your risk of sleep apnea.
The following conditions may increase your risk of obstructive sleep apnea:
- Polycystic ovary syndrome
- High blood pressure
- Facial deformities
- Esophageal reflux
- Enlarged tonsils or adenoids
- Chronic respiratory tract conditions, such as:
The following conditions may increase your risk of central sleep apnea:
- Bulbar poliomyelitis
- Neurodegenerative diseases
- Problems after cervical spine surgery
- Primary hypoventilation syndrome
- Brain tumors
- Down syndrome
Men are thought to be 2 to 4 times more likely to develop sleep apnea than women. However, some researchers have suggested that this difference may be because women are underdiagnosed with the condition.
Sleep apnea appears to run in certain families.
Sleep apnea is more common among:
- African Americans
- People of Mexican origin
- Pacific Islanders
You have an increased risk of developing sleep apnea if you have the following physical characteristics:
- Thick neck
- Obstructed nasal passages
- Large tongue
- Narrow airway
- Receding chin
- Certain shapes and increased rigidity of the palate and jaw
You also have an increased risk of developing sleep apnea if you breathe through your mouth while sleeping, or if you snore.
Last reviewedJune 2013by Rimas Lukas, MD; Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.