Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited, progressive muscle disorders. All forms cause progressive weakness and degeneration of the muscles that control movement. Some also affect the heart or other organs. Age of onset is between infancy to adulthood. The different forms include:

  • Duchenne dystrophy, which is the most common
  • Becker dystrophy, which is a milder form of Duchenne dystrophy
  • Myotonic muscular dystrophy, which can begin in late adulthood
  • Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, which affects the muscles of the face, shoulder blades, and upper arms
  • Congenital muscular dystrophy, which is diagnosed on or near birth and results in overall muscle weakness
  • Distal muscular dystrophy, which affects the distal muscles of the lower arms, hands, lower legs, and feet
  • Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, which affects the muscles of the shoulders, upper-arms, and calf muscles
  • Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, which affects the muscles around the hips and shoulders
  • Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, which affects swallowing and the ability to keep the eyes open

This condition is caused by defects in genes that control muscle development and function. In some cases, the genes are passed from parent to child. In other cases, the genetic mutation occurs spontaneously.