Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a painful condition in the joint that opens and closes the mouth. These temporomandibular joints are the small joints in front of each ear. They attach the lower jaw (mandible) to the skull. The disorder may affect the jaw joint or the muscles surrounding it. The disorder can include:
- damage to the joint surface or intra-articular disk
- displacement or complete dislocation of jaw bones
The Temporomandibular Joint
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The exact cause of TMD is often unclear. Possible causes include:
- Injury of the jaw or face
- Excess tension in the jaw muscles
- Faulty alignment between the upper and lower teeth
- Disturbed movement of the jaw joint
- Displacement or abnormal position of the jaw joint or cartilage disc inside the jaw joint
- Arthritis or similar inflammatory process in the joint
- Excess or limited motion of the joint
Last reviewedJuly 2013by Peter Lucas, MD; Brian Randall, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.